XWiki Syntax 2.1

XWiki Syntax 2.1: All

General

Introduction

2.1 Introduction

The XWiki Syntax 2.0 has proven to be quite useful and robust in general; however since its introduction a few shortcomings have been found. The corresponding improvements have been consolidated in XWiki Syntax 2.1. Some new features of this syntax are:

  • Homogenize the link and image syntax for better clarity, consistency and extensibility.
  • Added ability to display icons, to embed images via the Data URI scheme, to link to files using the UNC notation and to link to relative URLs.

Since XWiki Syntax 2.1 is based on XWiki Syntax 2.0 all syntax from XWiki Syntax 2.0 is valid unless the 2.1 specifications suggest differently.

In addition to these XWiki-specific syntaxes we've also changed our underlying rendering engine in XWiki Enterprise version 1.7 (was Radeox previously) in favor of our own engine which is superset wrapper around Wikimodel and Doxia (and possibly others in the future).  This has allowed us to provide other syntaxes in the wiki: MediaWiki, Confluence, JSPWiki, Creole, TWiki and more.

General Remarks

2.0 General Remarks

XWiki Syntax 2.1 corrects some errors or ambiguous syntax entered by the user as shown in the examples in the table below.

DescriptionExample of invalid or ambiguous syntaxFixed XWiki Syntax 2.1
Unclosed text styles**bold**bold**
Two standalone elements not separated by 2 new lines| table cell
* list item
| table cell

* list item
Two standalone elements not separated by 2 new linesparagraph
----
paragraph
paragraph

----

paragraph
Ignored new line at beginning of document<new line at beginning of document>
paragraph
paragraph
Not closed heading syntax=== heading=== heading ===

Other Syntaxes

1.0 Other Syntaxes

The following other syntaxes are implemented in XWiki Enterprise 1.6 and later:

The implementation for these syntaxes is not fully finished yet. For example support for links is not working perfectly yet. We also need to define if we want to extend the original syntaxes to support XWiki-specific features like ability to link to another sub-wiki.

Editing

Paragraphs

2.0 Paragraphs

Paragraphs are text elements separated by 2 or more new lines.

In XWiki Syntax 2.1 new lines are honored which is not the case in XWiki Syntax 1.0 and in Creole Syntax.

FeatureXWiki Syntax 2.1Result
Simple paragraphThis is a paragraphThis is a paragraph
Paragraph on multiple linesParagraph on
multiple lines
Paragraph on
multiple lines
Two paragraphsParagraph one

Paragraph two
Paragraph one

Paragraph two
Parametrized paragraph(% style="text-align:center;color:blue" %)
Centered and blue paragraph

Centered and blue paragraph
Different style on some portion of the paragraph contentparagraph with (% style="color:red" %)red(%%) different style insideparagraph with red texte inside

Headings

2.0 Headings

FeatureXWiki Syntax 2.1Result
Standard headings
= level 1 = 
== level 2 ==
=== level 3 ===
==== level 4 ====
===== level 5 =====
====== level 6 ======

level 1

 

level 2

level 3

level 4

level 5
level 6
Parameterized headings(% style="color:blue" %)
= heading =

heading

Headings with XWiki Syntax=== Heading with **bold** ===

Heading with bold

Text Formatting

2.0 Text Formatting

New in XWiki Syntax 2.1 over XWiki Syntax 1.0:

  • Spaces are allowed just after the syntax symbols (for example in XWiki Syntax 1.0, this was not possible: * bold *).
  • Use double symbols when there was only a single symbol in XWiki Syntax 1.0 so that it's less likely that the user will mistakenly use them in text.
  • Ability to span several lines (wasn't possible in XWiki Syntax 1.0).
FeatureXWiki Syntax 2.1Result
Bold**bold**bold
Underline__underline__underline
Italics//italic//italic
Striked out--strike--strike
Monospace##monospace##monospace
Superscriptsome ^^superscript^^some superscript
Subscriptsome ,,subscript,,some subscript

Horizontal Line

2.0 Horizontal Line

There must be 4 or more dashes.

Note that this is different from Creole where exactly 4 dashes are required.

FeatureXWiki Syntax 2.1Result
Simple horizontal line----

Parametrized horizontal line
(% style="color:blue" %)
----

Lists

2.0 Lists

Some of the mentioned styles do not work on all browsers. For a comprehensive list follow this link.

FeatureXWiki Syntax 2.1Result
Bulleted list
* item 1
** item 2
*** item 3
* item 4
  • item 1
    • item 2
      • item 3
  • item 4
Numbered list
1. item 1
11. item 2
111. item 3
1. item 4
  1. item 1
    1. item 2
      1. item 3
  2. item 4
Mixed list
1. item 1
1*. item 2
1*. item 3
1. item 4
  1. item 1
    • item 2
    • item 3
  2. item 4
Square list
(% style="list-style-type: square" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2
Disc list
(% style="list-style-type: disc" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2
Lowercase Alphabetical list
(% style="list-style-type: lower-alpha" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2
Uppercase Alphabetical list
(% style="list-style-type: upper-alpha" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2
Lowercase Roman list
(% style="list-style-type: lower-roman" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2
Uppercase Roman list
(% style="list-style-type: upper-roman" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2
Lowercase Greek list
(% style="list-style-type: lower-greek" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2
Uppercase Greek list
(% style="list-style-type: upper-greek" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2
Hiragana list
(% style="list-style-type: hiragana" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2
Hiragana Iroah list
(% style="list-style-type: hiragana-iroha" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2
Katakana list
(% style="list-style-type: katakana" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2
Katakana Iroha list
(% style="list-style-type: katakana-iroha" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2
Armenian list
(% style="list-style-type: armenian" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2
Hebrew list
(% style="list-style-type: hebrew" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2
Georgian list
(% style="list-style-type: georgian" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2
CJK ideographic list
(% style="list-style-type: cjk-ideographic" %)
* item 1
* item 2
  • item 1
  • item 2

Definition Lists

2.0 Definition Lists

FeatureXWiki Syntax 2.1Result
Standard definition
; term
: definition
term
definition
Nested definitions
; term 1
: definition 1
:; term 2
:: definition 2
term 1
definition 1
term 2
definition 2
Parametrized definition
(% style="color:blue" %)
; term
: definition
term
definition

New Line/Line Breaks

2.0 New Line Line Breaks

A new line is a carriage return. A line break is a forced new line that can appear anywhere in the text.

In XWiki Syntax 2.1 new lines are honored which is not the case in XWiki Syntax 1.0 and in Creole Syntax.

FeatureXWiki Syntax 2.1Result
Line breakLine\\New lineLine
New line
New lineLine
New line
Line
New line
FeatureXWiki Syntax 2.1Result
Absolute link to page PageB located in PageA[[PageA.PageB]]PageB
Relative link to page PageA from the current page[[PageA]] or [[.PageA]]PageA
Relative link to page PageB in PageA from the current page[[.PageA.PageB]]PageB
Link with a label
[[label>>PageA]]

XWiki Syntax is supported inside link labels.

label
Link with wiki syntax in the label[[**bold label**>>PageA]]bold label
Link on an image[[image:[email protected]>>PageA]]img.png
Absolute link to page PageB located in PageA in wiki WikiA[[WikiA:PageA.PageB]]PageB
Link that opens in a new window[[PageA||target="_blank"]]PageA
Implicit link to a URLThis is a URL: http://xwiki.orgThis is a URL: http://xwiki.org
Explicit link to a URL[[http://xwiki.org]]http://xwiki.org
Explicit link to a URL with a label[[XWiki>>http://xwiki.org]]XWiki
Link to an email address[[[email protected]>>mailto:[email protected]]][email protected]
Link to an attachment on the current page[[attach:img.png]]img.png
Link to an attachment in a different page[[attach:[email protected]]]img.png
Link to an Anchor in a page[[PageA.PageB||anchor="anchor"]]PageB
Link to a Heading in a page
[[PageA.PageB||anchor="HMyheading"]]

When you add a Heading, an anchor named "H" followed by the heading title with only alpha characters is created. For example, for a Heading named "My heading", the generated anchor will be "HMyheading".

PageB
Link to an anchor in the current page[[label>>||anchor="anchor"]]label
Link to a page with a query string[[PageA.PageB||queryString="param1=value1&param2=value2"]]PageB
Link to the current page with a query string[[label>>||queryString="param1=value1&param2=value2"]]label

XWiki Syntax 2.1 Link Specification

The part in ( ) is required, while the parts in [ ] are optional.

The full format of a link is [label>>] (resource) [||parameters]

  • label: An optional string which will be displayed to the user as the link name when rendered. The label may contain XWiki Syntax. If no label is specified a default label will be generated. The generation pattern can be changed, see the Admin Guide. Example: My Page
  • resource: A required string with the link reference in one of the following forms
    • URL: Any URL in the form of [url:] (protocol://path). Examples: http://xwiki.org, url:https://svn.xwiki.org/
      • url: An optional string identifying the resource as an URL.
    • Wiki page reference in the form (doc: ) [[wikiName:] spaceNameList.] (pageName). Examples: doc:Welcome, doc:Main.Welcome, doc:mywiki:Main.Welcome
      • doc: A required string identifying the resource as an XWiki terminal page. A non-terminal page can also be referenced this way, but it must append its .WebHome part (e.g. doc:Sandbox.WebHome).
      • wikiName: An optional string containing the name of a virtual wiki. The link will point to a page inside that virtual wiki. If no wiki is specified, the current wiki is used. Example: mywiki.
      • spaceNameList: An optional dot-separated list of wiki Space names. If no space is specified the current space is used. Examples: Main, A.B, A.B.C
      • pageName: A required string containing the name of the linked wiki page. Example: Welcome
    • Wiki space Since 7.4.1 reference in the form (space: ) [wikiName:] (spaceNameList). Examples: space:Main, space:mywiki:Main, space:A.B.C
      • space: A required string identifying the resource as an XWiki non-terminal page (i.e. a space).
      • wikiName: An optional string containing the name of a virtual wiki. The link will point to a page inside that virtual wiki. If no wiki is specified, the current wiki is used. Example: mywiki
      • spaceNameList: A required list of dot-separated wiki Space names pointing to the final linked wiki Space (or non-terminal page). Examples: Main, A.B, A.B.C
    • InterWiki page reference in the form interwiki: (interWikiAlias: ) (pageName). Example: interwiki:wikipedia:XWiki
      • interwiki: A required string identifying the resource as an InterWiki link.
      • interWikiAlias: An optional Inter Wiki alias as defined in the InterWiki Map (see the Admin Guide). Example: wikipedia
      • pageName: A required string containing the name of the linked page. Example: XWiki
    • Attachment reference in the form attach: [[email protected]] (attachmentName). Examples: attach:img.png, attach:mywiki:[email protected], attach:mywiki:[email protected]
      • attach: A required string identifying the resource as attachment.
      • wikiPageName: An optional string referencing the (terminal or non-terminal) page that holds the attachment. This is resolved identically to "Untyped", below.
      • attachmentName: Name of the attachment as it is stored in the wiki. Example: photo.png
    • Email address in the form mailto: (emailAddress) (#anchor is not valid). Example: mailto:[email protected]
      • mailto: A required string identifying the resource as email.
      • emailAddress: Targeted email address. Example: [email protected]
    • Relative path reference on the server in the form path: (relPath). Example: path:$doc.getURL('reset') produces target address http://server.domain.com/xwiki/bin/reset/Space/Page where /xwiki/bin/reset/Space/Page is produced by $doc.getURL('reset').
      • path: A required string identifying the resource as a relative path.
      • relPath: A required string containing the relative path of the resource on the server that shall be linked.
    • UNC (Windows Explorer) reference in the form unc: (path). The link is rendered as a file:// link. Examples: unc:C:\Windows\, unc:\\myserver\path\img.png, unc:home/user/somefile
      • unc: A required string identifying the resource as a UNC (Windows Explorer) path.
      • path: A required string containing the local path of resource accessible by the user. Examples: C:\Windows\, \\myserver\path\img.png, home/user/somefile
    • Untyped: If none of the above mentioned resource types are specified (i.e. no type: resource prefix was specified in the link), then the link will be treated as a link to an XWiki terminal or non-terminal page using the following algorithm:
      • Terminal page in the current space, only if it exists. Example: [[A]] is resolved to the equivalent of [[doc:currentSpace.A]]
      • Non-terminal page Since 7.4.1 in the current space. Example: [[A]] is resolved to the equivalent of [[space:currentSpace.A]], which is the equivalent of [[doc:currentSpace.A.WebHome]]
      • If the current page is non-terminal and the previous 2 checks above did not find an existing page, 2 additional checks are made:
        • Terminal page Since 7.4.1 as sibling in the parent space, only if it exists. Example: The [[B]] link inside the non-terminal page A.C is resolved to the equivalent of [[doc:A.B]]
        • Non-terminal page Since 7.4.1 as sibling in the parent space, regardless if it exists or not. Example: The [[B]] link inside the non-terminal page A.C is resolved to the equivalent of [[space:A.B]], which is the equivalent of [[doc:A.B.WebHome]]
      • Note1 - Absolute links: Since 7.4.1 If the untyped link has 2 or more dot-separated components specified (i.e. that look like a space name and a page name), the above algorithm will resolve the page relative to the current wiki, and not the current space. Example: [[A.B]] can be resolved to either [[doc:currentWiki:A.B]] (if it exists) or to [[space:currentWiki:A.B]] (equivalent of [[doc:currentWiki:A.B.WebHome]]) and not to [[doc:currentWiki:currentSpace.A.B]] or [[doc:currentWiki:currentSpace.A.B.WebHome]].
      • Note2 - Special handling of .WebHome: Since 7.4.1 If the untyped link ends in .WebHome, it will always be handled as a terminal page. Example: [[A.WebHome]] will always be resolved to the equivalent of [[doc:A.WebHome]] and not to [[doc:A.WebHome.WebHome]].
  • parameters: An optional list of space-separated parameters passed to the link. Example: queryString="mydata1=5&mydata2=Hello" anchor="HTableOfContents" target="_blank"
    • queryString: An optional query string for specifying parameters that will be appended to the link target address and used in the rendered URL. Example: url:http://domain.com/path||queryString="mydata1=5&mydata2=Hello" produces target address http://domain.com/path?mydata1=5&mydata2=Hello
    • anchor: An optional anchor name pointing to an anchor defined in the referenced link. Note that in XWiki anchors are automatically created for headings. Example: url:http://domain.com/path||anchor="HTableOfContents" produces target address http://domain.com/path#HTableOfContents
    • target: An optional parameter that allows to open link target in new window. Example: target="_blank"

Tables

2.0 Tables

Allows to easily create content in table format. Parameters for table, row or cell are also supported in XWiki Syntax 2.1.

FeatureXWiki Syntax 2.1Result
Standard table
|=Title 1|=Title 2
|Word 1|Word 2
or
!=Title 1!=Title 2
!!Word 1!!Word 2
Title 1Title 2
Word 1Word 2
Parametrized table
(% style="background-color:red;align=center" %)
|=Title 1|=(% style="background-color:yellow" %)Title 2
|Word 1|Word 2
Title 1Title 2
Word 1Word 2
Filterable Sortable table
{{velocity}}
$xwiki.ssfx.use("js/xwiki/table/table.css")
$xwiki.jsfx.use("js/xwiki/table/tablefilterNsort.js", true)
{{/velocity}}

(% class="grid sortable filterable doOddEven" id="tableid" %)
(% class="sortHeader" %)|=Title 1|=Title 2
|Cell 11|Cell 12
|Cell 21|Cell 22

For improved features see the Livetable Macro.

Title 1Title 2
Cell 11Cell 12
Cell 21Cell 22

Tables

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Tables

Failed to execute the [include] macro. Cause: [Cannot find section [H${displayVersion}${section.id}] in document [platform:XWiki.XWikiSyntax${section.id}]]. Click on this message for details.

Tables

Failed to execute the [include] macro. Cause: [Cannot find section [H${displayVersion}${section.id}] in document [platform:XWiki.XWikiSyntax${section.id}]]. Click on this message for details.

Tables

Failed to execute the [include] macro. Cause: [Cannot find section [H${displayVersion}${section.id}] in document [platform:XWiki.XWikiSyntax${section.id}]]. Click on this message for details.

Tables

Failed to execute the [include] macro. Cause: [Cannot find section [H${displayVersion}${section.id}] in document [platform:XWiki.XWikiSyntax${section.id}]]. Click on this message for details.

Tables

Failed to execute the [include] macro. Cause: [Cannot find section [H${displayVersion}${section.id}] in document [platform:XWiki.XWikiSyntax${section.id}]]. Click on this message for details.

Programming

Macros

2.0 Macros

There is only one kind of macro in XWiki Syntax 2.1, which is called by the syntax: {{macroname param1="value1" ... paramN="valueN"}}...{{/macroname}}. For macros without content there's a short notation: {{macroname param1="value1" ... paramN="valueN"/}}

FeatureXWiki Syntax 2.1Result
Rendering Macro with a content
{{code language="java"}}
System.out.println("Hello World!");
{{/code}
System.out.println("Hello World!");
Rendering Macro without content

{{include reference="Space.Page"/}}

The referenced page is included in the current page

Radeox macros cannot be used in XWiki Syntax 2.1. Thus they have been rewritten as Rendering macros.

For the full list of available macros check the Extensions wiki.

HTML

2.0 HTML

In XWiki Syntax 2.1 HTML or XHTML must be entered by using the HTML macro.

XWiki Syntax 2.1Result
{{html}}<b>bold</b>{{/html}} bold

In XWiki Syntax 2.1, by default the HTML macro does not understands XWiki Syntax (other macros included since it's XWiki Syntax too). To enable it, use {{html wiki="true"}} .

Scripts

2.0 Scripts

In XWiki Syntax 1.0 it was possible to enter Velocity scripts anywhere directly in the page. This lead to issues for example when the user was involuntarily entering Velocity content. It was also performance hungry for pages not requiring Velocity content. There were several other technical limitations. Thus in XWiki Syntax 2.1 Velocity scripts must be entered using the velocity macro. Same goes for entering Groovy scripts.

FeatureXWiki Syntax 2.1
Velocity script
{{velocity}}
#set ($var = "whatever")
{{/velocity}}
Groovy script
{{groovy}}
def var = "whatever"
{{/groovy}}
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