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1 {{box cssClass="floatinginfobox" title="**Contents**"}}
2 {{toc/}}
3 {{/box}}
4
5 = Installation Steps =
6
7 * Download and install [[Tomcat 8+>>http://tomcat.apache.org/]]. There are plenty of ways to install Tomcat, refer to the Tomcat site for more information. Let's call ##TOMCAT_HOME## the directory where it's installed.(((
8 {{warning}}
9 Using Tomcat 10 is not recommended right now since it moved to the incompatible Jakarta EE 9 API. See [[Apache Tomcat migration tool for Jakarta EE>>https://github.com/apache/tomcat-jakartaee-migration]] for mode details.
10 {{/warning}}
11 )))
12 * Make sure you [[give enough memory to Java>>platform:AdminGuide.InstallationTomcat#HOutOfMemoryError]] since by default Tomcat is not configured with enough memory for XWiki.
13 * Extract the [[XWiki WAR>>xwiki:Main.Download]] into a directory named ##xwiki## in ##TOMCAT_HOME/webapps/##
14 * Open ##TOMCAT_HOME/webapps/xwiki/WEB-INF/xwiki.properties## files and [[configure a permanent directory>>platform:AdminGuide.Configuration#HConfiguringDirectories]]
15 * Start Tomcat
16 * When Tomcat has opened go to your wiki by accessing [[http:~~/~~/localhost:8080/xwiki/bin/view/Main/>>http://localhost:8080/xwiki/bin/view/Main/]]
17 * NOTE - if you have issues with maximum cache size - In your ##$CATALINA_BASE/conf/context.xml## add the following content before ##</Context>##:(((
18 {{code}}
19 <Resources cachingAllowed="true" cacheMaxSize="100000" ></Resources>
20 {{/code}}
21 )))
22
23 == Activate headless mode ==
24
25 If you're operating XWiki on a Linux server with no X11 libraries installed you have to enable headless mode for your Tomcat installation. Sometimes this is also needed on Windows platforms. Typical exceptions are:
26
27 * ##Exception: Could not initialize class sun.awt.X11.XToolkit##
28 * ##java.lang.InternalError: Can't connect to X11 window server using 'localhost:10.0' as the value of the DISPLAY variable##
29
30 * On Linux create a file ##///TOMCAT_HOME///bin/setenv.sh## and insert the following code:(((
31 {{code}}
32 #!/bin/sh
33 export JAVA_OPTS="${JAVA_OPTS} -Djava.awt.headless=true"
34 {{/code}}
35 )))
36 * On Windows create a file ##///TOMCAT_HOME///bin/setenv.bat## and insert the following code:(((
37 {{code}}
38 set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Djava.awt.headless=true
39 {{/code}}
40 )))
41 * When running as a Windows service the ##setenv.bat## is not working. See registry ##HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Apache Software Foundation\Procrun 2.0\//FOOBAR//\Parameters\Java## for similar settings.
42
43 == Optional configuration ==
44
45 * Edit your ##conf/server.xml## to enable gzip compression: {{code}}<Connector port="8080" ... compression="on" compressionMinSize="2048" compressibleMimeType="text/html,text/xml,text/css,text/javascript,application/x-javascript"></Connector>{{/code}}
46 * If you want to modify the port on which Tomcat will run, edit ##//TOMCAT_HOME///conf/server.xml/##. Search for ##8080## (sometimes ##8180## if you are under Linux) and replace with the port value you wish to use.
47 * It is possible to setup a Tomcat Java Server as a UNIX Daemon - JSVC. Just follow [[these instructions>>http://www.malisphoto.com/tips/tomcatonosx.html?#Anchor-JSVC||rel="noopener noreferrer" target="new"]]. The only reason to make Tomcat a daemon is to make it runnable on the 80th port, which can be replaced by using NginX as a proxy on the 80th port and then forwarding to Tomcat to the 8080th port.
48
49 == Policy configuration ==
50
51 For those who activate the security manager for Tomcat, add this portion of code to the end of your ##conf/catalina.policy## file from your Tomcat installation. You can adapt the code for the available installations of OpenOffice/LibreOffice on your server and for different databases :
52
53 {{code}}
54 grant codeBase "file:${catalina.base}/webapps/xwiki/WEB-INF/lib/-" {
55 // for mySQL connection
56 permission java.net.SocketPermission "127.0.0.1:3306", "connect,resolve";
57
58 // XWiki must have access to all properties in read/write
59 permission java.util.PropertyPermission "*", "read, write";
60
61 // Generic detected permissions
62 permission java.lang.reflect.ReflectPermission "suppressAccessChecks";
63 permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "createClassLoader";
64 permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "setContextClassLoader";
65 permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.org.apache.catalina.loader";
66 permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessDeclaredMembers";
67 permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "getenv.ProgramFiles";
68 permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "getenv.APPDATA";
69 permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.sun.reflect";
70 permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "getClassLoader";
71 permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.org.apache.catalina.connector";
72 permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.org.apache.tomcat.util.threads";
73 permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "reflectionFactoryAccess";
74 permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.com.sun.jmx.interceptor";
75 permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.com.sun.jmx.mbeanserver";
76 permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "modifyThread";
77 permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "getProtectionDomain";
78
79 // JAXB permissions
80 permission javax.xml.bind.JAXBPermission "setDatatypeConverter";
81
82 // Serialization related permissions
83 permission java.io.SerializablePermission "allowSerializationReflection";
84 permission java.io.SerializablePermission "creator";
85 permission java.io.SerializablePermission "enableSubclassImplementation";
86
87 // Internal resources access permissions
88 permission java.io.FilePermission "synonyms.txt", "read";
89 permission java.io.FilePermission "lang/synonyms_en.txt", "read";
90 permission java.io.FilePermission "quartz.properties", "read";
91 permission java.io.FilePermission "/templates/-", "read";
92 permission java.io.FilePermission "/skins/-", "read";
93 permission java.io.FilePermission "/resources/-", "read";
94
95 // MBean related permissions
96 permission javax.management.MBeanServerPermission "createMBeanServer";
97 permission javax.management.MBeanPermission "*", "registerMBean";
98 permission javax.management.MBeanPermission "*", "unregisterMBean";
99 permission javax.management.MBeanTrustPermission "register";
100 permission javax.management.MBeanPermission "-#-[-]", "queryNames";
101 permission javax.management.MBeanServerPermission "findMBeanServer";
102
103 // LibreOffice/OpenOffice related permissions
104 permission java.io.FilePermission "/opt/openoffice.org3/program/soffice.bin", "read";
105 permission java.io.FilePermission "/opt/libreoffice/program/soffice.bin", "read";
106 permission java.io.FilePermission "/usr/lib/openoffice/program/soffice.bin", "read";
107 permission java.io.FilePermission "/usr/lib/libreoffice/program/soffice.bin", "read";
108
109 // Allow file storage directory reading - for directory and everything underneath
110 // This is dependent on the setting of environment.permanentDirectory in xwiki.properties
111 permission java.io.FilePermission "${catalina.base}${file.separator}xwikidata${file.separator}", "read,write,delete";
112 permission java.io.FilePermission "${catalina.base}${file.separator}xwikidata${file.separator}-", "read,write,delete";
113
114 // Allow file storage directory reading - temporary directory and everything underneath
115 // This is dependent on the setting of environment.temporaryDirectory in xwiki.properties.
116 permission java.io.FilePermission "${catalina.base}${file.separator}temp${file.separator}", "read,write,delete";
117 permission java.io.FilePermission "${catalina.base}${file.separator}temp${file.separator}-", "read,write,delete";
118 };
119 {{/code}}
120
121 Please note that this policy configuration file has been tested on CentOS 5.9 with Sun JDK 1.7.0u21 on Tomcat 7.0.40 with XWiki 5.0.1 installed.
122
123 == Using Nginx as a reverse-proxy for Tomcat (http/https) ==
124
125 For a [[variety of reasons>>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_proxy||rel="__blank"]], it is not ideal to allow users to connect directly to tomcat. A popular choice for a reverse-proxy web server is [[Nginx>>http://wiki.nginx.org/Main||rel="__blank"]]. These instructions will walk through a very basic deployment of nginx acting as a reverse-proxy for the tomcat XWiki application.
126
127 After a typical XWiki installation XWiki will be running on ##http:~/~/localhost:8080/xwiki##. Ultimately we will want to access XWiki via ##http:~/~/mydomain.com## on a standard http (80) or https (443) port. To accomplish this for unsecure http traffic, the following basic config file gets us started.
128
129 === http (unsecure) ===
130
131 * create this file ##/etc/nginx/conf.d/tomcat.conf##
132 * put the following code inside:(((
133 {{code}}
134 server {
135 listen 80;
136 server_name mydomain.com;
137
138 # Normally root should not be accessed, however, root should not serve files that might compromise the security of your server.
139 root /var/www/html;
140
141 location / {
142 # All "root" requests will have /xwiki appended AND redirected to mydomain.com
143 rewrite ^ $scheme://$server_name/xwiki$request_uri? permanent;
144 }
145
146 location ^~ /xwiki {
147 # If path starts with /xwiki - then redirect to backend: XWiki application in Tomcat
148 # Read more about proxy_pass: http://nginx.org/en/docs/http/ngx_http_proxy_module.html#proxy_pass
149 proxy_pass http://localhost:8080;
150 proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
151 proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
152 proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
153 proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;
154 }
155 }
156 {{/code}}
157 )))
158 * restart nginx
159
160 Now all ##http:~/~/mydomain.com/*## requests will lead to the XWiki application. Please note that these settings are basic. For more flexible solutions please refer to [[the Nginx documentation>>http://wiki.nginx.org/Main||rel="__blank"]].
161
162 === https (secure) ===
163
164 There are many guides on how to create a secure configuration of nginx. To get started:
165
166 * [[Strong SSL Security on nginx>>https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/Strong_SSL_Security_On_nginx.html||rel="__blank"]]
167 * [[How To Secure Nginx With LetsEncrypt on Ubuntu 16.04>>https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-secure-nginx-with-let-s-encrypt-on-ubuntu-16-04||rel="__blank"]]
168
169 The following config assumes you are using LetsEncrypt and that your XWiki is hosted on ##http:~/~/localhost:8080/##. This config will redirect all unsecure requests to https:~/~/ and set the correct proxy headers for a secure nginx+tomcat setup.
170
171 First, you will need to add the following config to tomcat's ##server.xml## (located at ##/etc/tomcat8/server.xml## on Ubuntu 16.04). The first line should already be in the file, I include it to give you something to search for (that line is located on line 108 in the Ubuntu 16.04 tomcat8 package). This will help tomcat find your proxy headers.
172
173 (((
174 {{code}}
175 <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost">
176 <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.RemoteIpValve"
177 internalProxies="127\.0\.[0-1]\.1"
178 remoteIpHeader="x-forwarded-for"
179 requestAttributesEnabled="true"
180 protocolHeader="x-forwarded-proto"
181 protocolHeaderHttpsValue="https"></Valve>
182 {{/code}}
183 )))
184
185 Next, add the following nginx config file to your nginx config folder, replacing ##wiki.yourdomain.com## with your actual domain info:
186
187 (((
188 {{code}}
189 server {
190 listen 80;
191 server_name wiki.yourdomain.com;
192
193 location ~ /.well-known {
194 allow all;
195 }
196
197 rewrite ^ https://$server_name$request_uri? permanent;
198
199 access_log /var/log/nginx-xwiki/access.log;
200 error_log /var/log/nginx-xwiki/error.log;
201
202 }
203
204 server {
205 listen 443;
206 server_name wiki.yourdomain.com;
207
208 root /var/www/html;
209
210 ssl on;
211 ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/wiki.yourdomain.com/fullchain.pem;
212 ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/wiki.yourdomain.com/privkey.pem;
213
214 access_log /var/log/nginx-xwiki/access_ssl.log;
215 error_log /var/log/nginx-xwiki/error_ssl.log;
216
217 location / {
218 proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
219 proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
220 proxy_set_header X-Forward-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
221 proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;
222 proxy_set_header X-Scheme $scheme;
223 proxy_redirect off;
224 if (!-f $request_filename) {
225 proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8080;
226 break;
227 }
228 }
229
230 location ~ /.well-known {
231 allow all;
232 }
233 }
234 {{/code}}
235 )))
236
237 For more background on this config, see the discussion on this ticket: [[XWIKI-13963>>http://jira.xwiki.org/browse/XWIKI-13963||rel="__blank"]].
238
239 === Proxying and tunnels ===
240
241 This proxy methods brings remote connections to local connection. This is complementary to SSH-tunneling which is easily done on port 8080 and can be used to test development servers.
242
243 For example, if you are running an XWiki on port 80 on your laptop while running the NGinx (or Apache) on a server where it is accessible as ##{{{https://wiki.yourdomain.com}}}##, you can make your XWiki acessible with this URL:
244
245 * First make sure that the port 8080 is not in use: You can proof this with ##{{{ssh server wget -O - https://127.0.0.1:8080/}}}## which should display the error message //Connection refused//. If not, something is running there and it should be stopped.
246 * You can then create the tunnel with the following ##ssh -R8080:127.0.0.1:8080 server##. This tells the server that incoming ("R"emote) connections on port 8080 on the server are to be tunnelled to the local (laptop) port 8080. This method has the advantage that the laptop (typically using a dynamic address) invokes the SSH where as a proxy configured on the server to proxy to the laptop would need to know the address of the laptop.
247
248 == Configuring tomcat for https ==
249
250 Although allowing users to directly connect to tomcat is not recommended, for a variety of reasons it may be desirable to configure tomcat to serve pages over an https connection.If using another server as a HTTPS proxy (such as Nginx or Apache httpd), follow instruction below to avoid unexpected error (such as "failed to lock page").
251
252 * If using HTTPS for accessing XWiki, several modifications have to be made to ensure proper functionality. Since urls are generated from relative path (##/xwiki/bin/show/Space/Page##), Tomcat has to know which protocol to use, otherwise JSON requests with redirect fails (attachment uploads, extension updating, etc.)
253 * Modify connector (in ##server.xml##) to {{code}}<Connector port="8080" ... secure="true" scheme="https" ></Connector>{{/code}}
254 * Modify host (in ##server.xml##) and add Remote Ip Valve {{code}}<Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.RemoteIpValve" remoteIpHeader="x-forwarded-for" protocolHeader="x-forwarded-proto" ></Valve>{{/code}} (only needed if using another server for HTTPS)
255
256 {{info}}
257 Set X-Forwarded-For and X-Forwarded-Proto headers on HTTPS guard server(on which Apache httpd or Nginx runs)!
258 {{/info}}
259
260 = Troubleshooting =
261
262 == Out Of Memory Error ==
263
264 When you run XWiki in Tomcat with the default settings, you'll probably get an ##Out Of Memory## error (##java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space## or ##java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: PermGen space##) since the default Tomcat memory settings are not enough for [[XWiki Memory Requirements>>platform:AdminGuide.Performances#HMemory]]. You'll need to allocate more memory to the JVM.
265
266 One easy solution to configure Tomcat's memory is to create a ##setenv.sh## file (or ##setenv.bat## on Windows) in ##[TOMCAT_HOME]/bin/## (where ##[TOMCAT_HOME]## is where you've installed Tomcat) and inside this file add the following (adjust the memory values according to the [[XWiki Memory Requirements>>platform:AdminGuide.Performances#HMemory]]). For example:
267
268 {{code language="none"}}
269 CATALINA_OPTS="-Xmx1024m -XX:MaxPermSize=192m"
270 {{/code}}
271
272 On most Linux distributions, this can also be achieved in ##/etc/tomcat//X///tomcat//X//.conf## or ##/etc/conf.d/tomcat//X//.conf## (where //X// is the version of Tomcat installed).
273
274 On Windows, if you are running Tomcat as a service then defining ##CATALINA_OPTS## will not help. There is an utility provided in the ##bin## folder of your Tomcat installation (for example for Tomcat 5.x on Windows it's called tomcat5w.exe). It's a GUI tool which can be used to set various options including the heap size.
275
276 == Java Security Manager ==
277
278 By default Tomcat is configured to have the Java Security Manager turned on. See the [[sample policy file>>platform:AdminGuide.InstallationWAR#HInstallandconfigureaServletContainer]] for more details.
279
280 If you want to turn off the Java Security Manager for Tomcat, edit the Tomcat startup script. You might also want to check your ##/etc/init.d/tomcat## file or ##/etc/default/tomcat5.5##. You should see the following code:
281
282 {{code}}
283 # Use the Java security manager? (yes/no)
284 TOMCAT5_SECURITY=
285 {{/code}}
286
287 Set it to ##no## to turn off the Security Manager.
288
289 == Allowing "/" and "\" in page names ==
290
291 Tomcat completely freaks out when there's a ##%2F## or ##%5C## in URLs and it's not something that can be changed in XWiki. See [[this note>>http://tomcat.apache.org/security-6.html#Fixed_in_Apache_Tomcat_6.0.10]] for more information.
292
293 You can configure Tomcat to allow "/", by setting the ##org.apache.tomcat.util.buf.UDecoder.ALLOW_ENCODED_SLASH## system property to ##true##, as in:
294
295 {{code}}
296 -Dorg.apache.tomcat.util.buf.UDecoder.ALLOW_ENCODED_SLASH=true
297 {{/code}}
298
299 And by setting the ##org.apache.catalina.connector.CoyoteAdapter.ALLOW_BACKSLASH## system property to ##true## to allow "\", as in:
300
301 {{code}}
302 -Dorg.apache.catalina.connector.CoyoteAdapter.ALLOW_BACKSLASH=true
303 {{/code}}
304
305 To have both properties permanently enabled on your Tomcat instance, add the lines below to your ##CATALINA_OPTS## environment variable. How to achieve this depends on your operating system, Tomcat distribution and single/multi-instance setup.
306
307 {{code}}
308 -Dorg.apache.tomcat.util.buf.UDecoder.ALLOW_ENCODED_SLASH=true
309 -Dorg.apache.catalina.connector.CoyoteAdapter.ALLOW_BACKSLASH=true
310 {{/code}}
311
312 === Apache front-end server ===
313
314 Note that if you're using the Apache web server as a front-end, you also need to [[configure Apache to allow encoded / and \>>https://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/core.html#allowencodedslashes]] (##AllowEncodedSlashes NoDecode##) and also make sure to use ##nocanon## on the [[ProxyPass line used>>https://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/mod_proxy.html]].
315
316 == NotSerializableException ==
317
318 If you get the following:
319
320 {{code}}
321 SEVERE: IOException while loading persisted sessions: java.io.WriteAbortedException: writing aborted; java.io.NotSerializableException: org.xwiki.model.internal.reference.LocalStringEntityReferenceSerializer
322 java.io.WriteAbortedException: writing aborted; java.io.NotSerializableException: org.xwiki.model.internal.reference.LocalStringEntityReferenceSerializer
323 at java.io.ObjectInputStream.readObject0(Unknown Source)
324 at java.io.ObjectInputStream.defaultReadFields(Unknown Source)
325 {{/code}}
326
327 This means that on startup Tomcat tries to load saved Sessions and fails to do so. In this case it fails because some non-serializable object was put in the Servlet Session. To work around the issue [[you can tell Tomcat to not save sessions>>http://dev-answers.blogspot.fr/2007/03/how-to-turn-off-tomcat-session.html]].
328
329 == SEVERE: Error listenerStart ==
330
331 If you get this error in your Tomcat logs then you'll need to enable finer-grained logging configuration to see what's the problem. This involves copying the following content in a ##WEB-INF/classes/logging.properties## file:
332
333 {{code}}
334 org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.[Catalina].level = INFO
335 org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.[Catalina].handlers = java.util.logging.ConsoleHandler
336 {{/code}}
337
338 == Parameter count exceeded allowed maximum ==
339
340 If you get an error such as the following it means you reached the limit of parameters you can send in a form.
341
342 {{code}}
343 java.lang.IllegalStateException: Parameter count exceeded allowed maximum: 512
344 {{/code}}
345
346 You can set the value you want by setting the following in your Tomcat ##server.xml## file:
347
348 {{code}}
349 <Connector port=... maxParameterCount="10000" ></Connector>
350 {{/code}}
351
352 == ThreadLocal Errors ==
353
354 When you stop XWiki you may see the following type of errors in the Tomcat logs. This is a [[known limitation of XWiki in cleaning up some ThreadLocal variables>>https://jira.xwiki.org/browse/XWIKI-9055]]. To be safe, we recommend that you stop XWiki by stopping Tomcat (i.e. stopping the Tomcat JVM). This ensures that there won't be any memory leak related to these ThreadLocal variables. If you use the Tomcat Manager to stop the XWiki webapp (by undeploying it), then we recommend to not do that and instead to stop Tomcat and restart it.
355
356 {{code language="none"}}
357 SEVERE [Thread-794] org.apache.catalina.loader.WebappClassLoaderBase.checkThreadLocalMapForLeaks The web application [...] created a ThreadLocal with key of type [java.lang.ThreadLocal] (value [[email protected]]) and a value of type [...] (value [...]) but failed to remove it when the web application was stopped. Threads are going to be renewed over time to try and avoid a probable memory leak.
358 {{/code}}
359
360 = Old Instructions =
361
362 Note that [[Tomat 7 is no longer supported>>dev:Community.SupportStrategy.ServletContainerSupportStrategy.WebHome]].
363
364 {{error}}
365 The Tomcat project has brought a change in the [[way they handle ##RequestDispatcher##>>https://bz.apache.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=59317]] which has caused [[regressions in XWiki>>https://jira.xwiki.org/browse/XWIKI-13556]] for some versions of Tomcat. Thus you should **not** use the following Tomcat versions:
366
367 * >= 9.0.0.M5 and < 9.0.0.M10 for the 9.0.x branch (fixed in 9.0.0.M10)
368 * >= 8.5.1 and < 8.5.5 for the 8.5.x branch (fixed in 8.5.5)
369 * >= 8.0.34 and < 8.0.37 for the 8.0.x branch (fixed in 8.0.37)
370 * >= 7.0.70 and < 7.0.71 for the 7.0.x branch (fixed in 7.0.71)
371
372 There is an important Classloader related bug in 8.0.32 which makes impossible to use the code macro or write Python scripts so you should avoid this version if possible. See https://bz.apache.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=58999.
373 {{/error}}
374
375 * XWiki 12.0+ requires a Tomcat version >= 8 since it requires Servlet 3.1+
376 * Older versions of XWiki require a Tomcat version >= 7 since it requires Servlet 3.0+
377 * Tomcat 7 is not using URF-8 by default. Edit the ##conf/server.xml## file to set the UTF-8 encoding:(((
378 {{code}}
379 <Connector port="8080" ... URIEncoding="UTF-8"></Connector>
380 {{/code}}
381 )))

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