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1 {{box cssClass="floatinginfobox" title="**Contents**"}}
2 {{toc/}}
3 {{/box}}
5 Wiki macros allow macro authors to develop reusable and distributable macro modules. There is no java code involved; hence no compiling or packaging. The macro author simply needs to create a wiki page according to a particular specification and that's all!
7 This page is a tutorial but you can also access the [[reference documentation for the Wiki Macro feature>>doc:extensions:Extension.WikiMacroStore.WebHome]].
9 = Macro Visibility and Rights =
11 There are 3 levels of visibility for a macro:
13 * ##Global##
14 ** on main wiki (or {{info}}before XWiki 10.4RC1{{/info}}) the macro will be available in all the pages of all the (sub)wikis. Requires the macro author to have **Programming Rights**
15 ** on subwiki {{info}}in 10.4RC1+{{/info}} synonym of ##Current Wiki## visibility
16 * ##Current Wiki##, which means that the macro will be available in all the pages of the wiki the macro is in. Requires the macro author to have **Admin Rights**
17 * ##Current User##, which means that the macro will only be available to the user who is its author. No special rights required.
19 == Using protected API in wiki macros ==
21 Also, if the macro needs to use [[protected API>>platform:DevGuide.Scripting||anchor="HXWikiCoreAccess"]], the author of the macro will need to have programming rights. Note that the macro will always be executed with the rights of its author, and not with the rights of the author of the calling document (the document using the macro). Specifically, if the macro uses protected API, only the macro author needs to have programming rights, not all the authors of the documents that call this macro.
23 = Hello Macro =
25 We are going to start with a very simple xwiki/2.0 wiki macro which prints a greeting message to the document content. It isn't a very useful macro but the idea is to get you familiarised with the wiki macro creation process.
27 == Definition ==
29 Wiki macros are defined using objects of type ##XWiki.WikiMacroClass##. You define a wiki macro by creating a new wiki page and attaching to it an object of type ##XWiki.WikiMacroClass##.
31 {{warning}}
32 There can be only one object of type ##XWiki.WikiMacroClass## per wiki page (if you add more only the first will be used).
33 {{/warning}}
36 This class contains the following fields:
38 * **Macro id**: Id of the macro to be used by users when invoking your macro from wiki code
39 * **Macro name**: Name of the macro to be displayed on the wysiwyg editor
40 * **Macro description**: A short description of the macro to be displayed on the WYSIWYG editor
41 * **Default category**: Default category under which this macro should be listed
42 * **Supports inline mode**: Whether the macro can be used in an inline context or not
43 * **Macro Content availability**: {{warning}}before 11.5RC1 this was called **Macro Content Type**{{/warning}} whether this macro should support a body or not
44 * **Macro content type**: {{warning}}this field has been renamed **Macro Content Availability** since 11.5RC1{{/warning}} the type of accepted content: two values are proposed, {{code}}WIKI{{/code}} if this content should be editable like a wiki content, or {{code}}UNKNOWN{{/code}} if it should be displayed like a plain text. It's also possible to specify a custom java type such as {{code}}java.util.List<java.lang.String>{{/code}}. Leaving the field blank is equivalent to {{code}}UNKWOWN{{/code}} value.
45 * **Content description**: A short description about the macro's content to be displayed on the WYSIWYG editor
46 * **Macro code**: The actual wiki code that will be evaluated when the macro is executed, can be any xwiki content (should be in the same syntax as the document)
47 * **Asynchronous rendering**: {{info}}Since 10.10{{/info}} Enabled or disable asynchronous rendering of the panel. Disabled by default.
48 * **Cached**: {{info}}Since 10.10{{/info}} Indicate if the result of the execution of the element should be cached. Disabled by default.
49 * **Context elements**: {{info}}Since 10.10{{/info}} The context information required during the execution of the extension (current user, current document, etc.). It's also used to generate the cache key.
51 Now we can define our hello macro as shown below:
53 [[image:macro1.png]]
55 == Invocation ==
57 A wiki macro can be invoked just like any other macro is invoked. Since we are writing a xwiki/2.0 wiki macro, we can invoke our **hello macro** as below:
59 {{code}}
60 {{hello/}}
61 {{/code}}
63 And if you view the result it would say "Hello World!" (of course).
65 == Content ==
67 Starting with {{code}}XWiki 11.4RC1{{/code}} there are two ways to insert the content of the wiki macro.
69 * The easiest way is to use a dedicated macro in the body of the wikimacro:(((
70 {{code language="none"}}
71 {{wikimacrocontent/}}
72 {{/code}}
74 Note that by default this makes the content of the macro directly editable in [[the WYSIWYG editor>>]].
75 )))
76 * Another way to manipulate the content is to use the wikimacro binding. For example, when using Velocity, you can write the following script in the macro body:(((
77 {{code language="none"}}
78 {{velocity}}$wikimacro.content{{/velocity}}
79 {{/code}}
80 )))
82 For more details, see the [[Scripting Tips section below>>platform:DevGuide.WikiMacroTutorial||anchor="HScriptingTips"]].
84 == Parameters ==
86 Introducing a parameter to a wiki macro is pretty straight forward; you simply need to add an object of type ##XWiki.WikiMacroParameterClass## into your wiki macro document (one object per parameter). This class contains several fields that allow you to define your parameter clearly:
88 * Parameter name: Name of the parameter, users will refer this name when invoking your macro with parameters
89 * Parameter description (optional): A short description of the parameter, this description will be made available on the WYSIWYG editor
90 * Parameter mandatory: Indicates if this particular parameter is mandatory, wiki macro will fail to execute if a mandatory parameter is missing
91 * Parameter default value (optional): {{info}}Since 10.10{{/info}} The default value of the parameter when it's empty
92 * Parameter type (optional): {{info}}Since 10.10{{/info}} Indicates to which Java type the parameter value (defined as a String) must be converted to (##java.lang.String## by default).
94 Now we're going to extend our **hello macro** with a parameter. We will introduce a parameter named //greetUser// that will indicate if the greeting message should be tailored for the current user viewing the page. The definition of the parameter is shown below:
96 [[image:macro3.png]]
98 A macro parameter defined this way can be accessed from any scripting language within the macro code. For example, we are going to utilize our //greetUser// parameter within **hello macro** as shown below:
100 [[image:macro4.png]]
102 As you might have realized already, direct binding of parameters is not supported at the moment. That is, you cannot access //greetUser// parameter with **$greetUser**. Instead you must use **$wikimacro.parameters.greetUser**. We plan to introduce some form of direct parameter binding in near future.
104 Since {{info}}11.5RC1{{/info}}, it is also possible to display the content of a macro parameter by using a dedicated macro:
105 {{code language="none"}}Hello {{wikimacroparameter name="greeUsers" /}}{{/code}}
107 Finally, we can test our new version of **hello macro** with the following invocation:
109 {{code language="none"}}
110 {{hello greetUser="true"/}}
111 {{/code}}
113 If you want to call the new version of the **hello macro** with a parameter from a variable you will need to wrap the call in a velocity macro like this:
115 {{code language="none"}}
116 {{velocity}}
117 #set ($greet = true)
118 {{hello greetUser="$greet"/}}
119 {{/velocity}}
120 {{/code}}
122 == Translations ==
124 When your macro is ready, you might want to provide the description of the macro and its parameters in different languages. For that, you need to create a set of translation keys and values (as described [[here>>platform:DevGuide.InternationalizingApplications]]) and then just use the following convention for the keys you add in this storage (no modification is needed on the macro itself, the association of the translations to the macro is done based on a convention of the form of the translation keys):
126 {{code}}
127 rendering.macro.<macro id>.name=Name of the macro, displayed in the macros list in the macros wizard
128 rendering.macro.<macro id>.description=Description of the macro, displayed as a help in the macros list in the macros wizard
130 rendering.macro.<macro id>.parameter.<parameter name>.name=Name of the macro parameter, to be displayed in the form for the macro settings in the macros wizard
131 rendering.macro.<macro id>.parameter.<parameter name>.description=Description of the macro parameter, to be displayed as a help in the form for the macro settings in the macros wizard
132 {{/code}}
134 Don't forget to make sure that the visibility of the translations is the same as the visibility of the macro, so that anywhere you use the macro you also have the translations.
136 In our example, french translations would be something like this:
138 {{code}}
139 pour dire bonjour
140 rendering.macro.hello.description=Ceci est une macro qui va dire "Bonjour" a l'utilisateur
141 le message
142 rendering.macro.hello.parameter.greetUser.description=Personnaliser le message pour l'utilisateur courant en train de visualiser la page. Les valeurs possibles sont "true" (oui) et "false" (non).
143 {{/code}}
145 = WYSIWYG Access =
147 A wiki macros is treated just like any other rendering macro in the system. As such, the moment you save your wiki macro it will be available to the users through the WYSIWYG editor's **Insert Macro** dialog box:
149 [[image:macro2.png]]
151 [[image:macro5.png]]
153 == Special code for WYSIWYG edit mode ==
155 Even in edit mode, the WYSIWYG editor will execute the macro and feed the result back into the document. If your macro use some JSX, these will not be loaded. But, if your macro produce some Javascript that use those JSX or manipulate the document's DOM (injecting new elements, moving existing elements, removing elements, etc.), you may want to protect the content in WYSIWYG edit mode in order to prevent the performed transformation to get saved. Here is how you can prevent this behavior:
157 {{code language="velocity"}}
158 {{velocity}}
159 #if("$xcontext.action" != "edit")
160 {{html}}
161 <script type="text/javascript">
162 //<![CDATA[
163 ... some javascript ...
164 // ]]>
165 </script>
166 {{/html}}
167 #end
168 ##
169 ## Rest of the code.
170 {{/velocity}}
171 {{/code}}
173 = Scripting Tips =
175 Following are a few useful hints if you plan to do advanced scripting inside your wiki macros:
177 * Old and new bindings: please note that the ##$wikimacro## binding is only available since {{info}}XWiki 10.11.9, 11.3.2 and 11.6RC1{{/info}}, before that the ##$xcontext.macro## binding should be used. You can get more information on [[the reference documentation page>>doc:extensions:Extension.WikiMacroStore.WebHome||anchor="HBindings"]]
178 * Access parameters: Use the wikimacro object (Ex. ##$wikimacro.params.param1##)
179 * Access macro body (if your macro defines one): Use the wikimacro object (Ex. ##$wikimacro.content##)
180 * Access [[MacroTransformationContext>>]]: Use the wikimacro object (Ex. ##$wikimacro.context##)
181 * Since 2.4M1, it's possible to directly return the desired list of rendering blocks without having to render them first to let them be parsed back by the macro transformation. The benefits are that it could be a lots quicker and most of all it means supporting syntax which does not provide any renderer. It also makes it possible to generate some XDOM which is impossible to write in any some syntax. For example the following wiki macro is generating a LinkBlock targeting a relative URL:(((
182 {{code language="groovy"}}
183 {{groovy}}
184 import java.util.Collections;
185 import org.xwiki.rendering.listener.Link;
186 import org.xwiki.rendering.block.WordBlock;
187 import org.xwiki.rendering.block.LinkBlock;
189 ref link = new Link();
190 link.setReference("/xwiki/edit/Main/WebHome");
191 link.setType(LinkType.URI);
193 ref linkBlock = new LinkBlock(Collections.singletonList(new WordBlock("Edit home page"))), link, false);
195 wikimacro.result = Collections.singletonList(linkBlock)
196 {{/groovy}}
198 This text will not appear in the result.
199 {{/code}}
200 )))
201 * If you are using ##$wikimacro.content## in your velocity macro, that content will not be able to support scripting, since nested scripting is not supported. To workaround that limitation, thanks to the above, you may do the parsing yourself using the rendering service. Here is a small sample:(((
202 {{code languege="velocity"}}
203 {{velocity output="no"}}
204 ## get the macro content in a velocity string
205 #set($wikiresult = $wikimacro.content)
206 ## Add a wrapping div as a sample of the action of this macro
207 #set($wikiresult = "(% class='newstyle' %)((($wikiresult)))")
208 ## parse the string and return the resulting blocks
209 #set($wikimacro.result = $services.rendering.parse($wikiresult, $xwiki.getCurrentContentSyntaxId()).getChildren())
210 {{/velocity}}
211 {{/code}}
212 )))
213 * Since 9.1RC1 you can access the macro descriptor using ##$xcontext.macro.descriptor## binding. It returns a ##org.xwiki.rendering.macro.descriptor.MacroDescriptor## Java object.
215 = Troubleshooting =
217 == A Pitfall of Optional Parameters ==
219 {{info}}
220 This pitfall has been fixed in XWiki 2.2
221 {{/info}}
223 There is a common pitfall for using optional paramters. The following macro code contains a not so obvious bug:
225 {{code languege="velocity"}}
226 {{velocity}}
227 #set($greetUser=$xcontext.macro.params.greetUser)
228 #if ("true" == $greetUser && "XWiki.XWikiGuest" != "$xcontext.user" )
229 Hello $!
230 #else
231 Hello world!
232 #end
233 <img src="$image" width="$width" />
234 {{/code}}
236 If we invoke it twice in a row:
238 {{code}}
239 {{hello greetUser="true" /}}
240 {{hello /}}
241 {{/code}}
243 The second invocation will not print "Hello World!" as we'd expect. But it will print the same result as the first invocation. The reasons are:
245 * Macro parameters are implemented as global parameters. So, they remain the same across multiple macro invocations.
246 * If ##$xcontext.macro.params.greetUser## contains "null", it will not be assigned to ##$greetUser##. This is different from C/C++ or Java.
248 So in order to get around it, you can use:
250 {{code}}
251 #set($greetUser="$!xcontext.macro.params.greetUser")
252 {{/code}}

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